Heating to a temperature about 100 degrees F above the critical range, as indicated by the iron carbon diagram, and cooling in still air. Normalizing is used to restore the steel to its normal condition after hot working, cold working, non-uniform cooling or overheating, or to eliminate the effects of previous heat treatment. Other common objects of normalizing include the development of uniformity in grain structure and in physical properties, a slight hardening of medium carbon steels to improve machinability and the removal of stresses, stains or coarse grain prior to hardening. The usual normalizing temperatures range from about 1500 degrees to 1800 degrees F depending upon the steel involved.
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