Killed steels are characterized by a more uniform chemical composition and properties as compared to other types: there are, however, some variations in composition from surface to center and from top to bottom of the ingot. Killed Steel is a type of steel from which there is only a slight evolution of gases during solidification of the metal after pouring into molds. A shrinkage cavity (commonly known as primary pipe) is formed in the upper portion of the ingot. This shrinkage cavity should be eliminated by discarding. This type of steel is produced by various steelmaking practices involving the use of certain deoxidizing elements which act with varying intensities. The most common of these are silicon and aluminum. Due to the variation in deoxidation practices in the manufacture of killed steels, the choice and amounts of specific deoxidizers to be used, either singly or in combination, are normally left to the discretion of producers.
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